Week 4: Communicative competence

Meeting 4 Communicative-Language-Teaching


21 responses to this post.

  1. Assalamu’alaikum Mr.Sofwan,

    I’m Rizka Ikhtiari Fajrianingrum (2201409011), your student in Topics and Applied Linguistics class, thursday 403-404.

    All of my assignments from your class will be posted on my web blog,

    Thank you, sir. Have a nice blogwalking 🙂


  2. nurhasanahku.blogspot.com


  3. sir, please visit my weblog to check my second assignment of Topic in applied linguistic http://utamimeta.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/historical-background-of-language-teaching-2nd-assignment/
    thank you sir


  4. Assignment 2: Historical Background of Communicative Language Teaching by Rahina Larasati (2201409044)


    THRU, 405-406



    Traditional approaches is the first period of the historical background in CLT. It happened until 1960s. In this time, grammar competence becomes the main attention of language proficiency. Because of that belief, they keep teaching grammar deductively. Students would be given certain grammar rules, the examples of constructing centences using those rules, and also opportunities to practice using them. By building up a large repertoire of sentences and grammatical patterns and also providing repetitive practice and drilling, they assumes that language learning goal could be achieved.

    The researcher at that time develop some methodologies based on these assumptions include Audiolingualism (in North America) (also known as the Aural-Oral Method), and the Structural-Situational Approach in the United Kingdom (also known as Situational Language Teaching). Then, the they also use are memorization of dialogs, question-and-answer practice, substitution drills, and various forms of guided speaking and writing practice.

    In a typical audiolingual lesson, the following procedures would be observed:

    a. Students first hear a model dialog (either read by the teacher or on tape) containing key structures that are the focus of the lesson. They repeat each line of the dialog, individually and in chorus. The teacher pays attention to pronunciation, intonation, and fluency. Correction of mistakes of pronunciation or grammar is direct and immediate. The dialog is memorized gradually, line by line. A line may be broken down into several phrases if necessary. The dialog is read aloud in chorus, one half saying one speaker’s part and the other half responding. The students do not consult their book throughout this phase.
    b. The dialog is adapted to the students’ interest or situation, through changing certain key words or phrases. This is acted out by the students.
    c. Certain key structures from the dialog are selected and used as the basis for pattern drills of different kinds. These are first practiced in chorus and then individually. Some grammatical explanation may be offered at this point, but this is kept to an absolute minimum.
    d. The students may refer to their textbook, and follow-up reading, writing, or vocabulary activities based on the dialog may be introduced.
    e. Follow-up activities may take place in the language laboratory, where further dialog and drill work is carried out. (Richards and Rodgers 2001, 64–65)

    In a typical lesson according to the situational approach, a three-phase sequence, known as the P-P-P cycle, was often employed: Presentation, Practice, Production.
    Presentation: The new grammar structure is presented, often by means of a conversation or short text. The teacher explains the new structure and checks students’ comprehension of it.
    Practice: Students practice using the new structure in a controlled context, through drills or substitution exercises.
    Production: Students practice using the new structure in different contexts, often using their own content or information, in order to develop fluency with the new pattern.

    The underlying theory for a P-P-P approach has now been discredited. The belief that a precise focus on a particular form leads to learning and automatization (that learners will learn what is taught in the order in which it is taught) no longer carries much credibility in linguistics or psychology.

    2. CLASSIC CLT APPROACHES (1970s – 1990)

    In the 1970s, a reaction to traditional language teaching approaches began and soon spread around the world as older methods such as Audiolingualism and Situational Language Teaching fell out of fashion. The centrality of grammar in language teaching and learning was questioned, since it was argued that language ability involved much more than grammatical competence. What was needed in order to use language communicatively was communicative competence. The researhers argue that communicative competence, and not simply grammatical competence, should be the goal of language teaching. So, the Methodology used here is communicative language teaching.

    Rather than simply specifying the grammar and vocabulary learners needed to master, it is argued that a syllabus should identify the following aspects of language use in order to be able to develop the learner’s communicative competence:

    a. As detailed a consideration as possible of the purposes for which the learner wishes to acquire the target language; for example, using English for business purposes, in the hotel industry.
    b. Some idea of the setting in which they will want to use the target language; for example, in an office, on an airplane, or in a store.
    c. The socially defined role the learners will assume in the target language, as well as the role of their interlocutors; for example, as a traveler, as a salesperson talking to clients, or as a student in a school.
    d. The communicative events in which the learners will participate: everyday situations, vocational or professional situations, academic situations, and so on; for example, making telephone calls, engaging in casual conversation, or taking part in a meeting
    e. The language functions involved in those events, or what the learner will be able to do with or through the language; for example, making introductions, giving explanations, or describing plans.
    f. The notions or concepts involved, or what the learner will need to be able to talk about; for example, leisure, finance, history, religion.
    g. The skills involved in the “knitting together” of discourse: discourse and rhetorical skills; for example, storytelling, giving an effective business presentation.
    h. The variety or varieties of the target language that will be needed, such as American, Australian, or British English, and the levels in the spoken and written language which the learners will need to reach.
    i. The grammatical content that will be needed.
    j. The lexical content, or vocabulary, that will be needed.


    Communicative language teaching today refers to a set of generally agreed upon principles that can be applied in different ways, depending on the teaching context, the age of the learners, their level, their learning goals, and so on.

    Ten Core Assumptions of Current Communicative Language Teaching:

    a. Second language learning is facilitated when learners are engaged in interaction and meaningful communication.
    b. Effective classroom learning tasks and exercises provide opportunities for students to negotiate meaning, expand their language resources, notice how language is used, and take part in meaningful interpersonal exchange.
    c. Meaningful communication results from students processing content that is relevant, purposeful, interesting, and engaging.
    d. Communication is a holistic process that often calls upon the use of several language skills or modalities.
    e. Language learning is facilitated both by activities that involve inductive or discovery learning of underlying rules of language use and organization, as well as by those involving language analysis and reflection.
    f. Language learning is a gradual process that involves creative use of language, and trial and error. Although errors are a normal product of learning, the ultimate goal of learning is to be able to use the new language both accurately and fluently.
    g. Learners develop their own routes to language learning, progress at different rates, and have different needs and motivations for language learning.
    h. Successful language learning involves the use of effective learning and communication strategies.
    i. The role of the teacher in the language classroom is that of a facilitator, who creates a classroom climate conducive to language learning and provides opportunities for students to use and practice the language and to reflect on language use and language learning.
    j. The classroom is a community where learners learn through collaboration and sharing.
    k. Current approaches to methodology draw on earlier traditions in communicative language teaching and continue to make reference to some extent to traditional approaches. Thus classroom activities typically have some of the following characteristics:
    l. They seek to develop students’ communicative competence through linking grammatical development to the ability to communicate. Hence, grammar is not taught in isolation but often arises out of a communicative task, thus creating a need for specific items of grammar. Students might carry out a task and then reflect on some of the linguistic characteristics of their performance.
    m. They create the need for communication, interaction, and negotiation of meaning through the use of activities such as problem solving, information sharing, and role play.
    n. They provide opportunities for both inductive as well as deductive learning of grammar.
    o. They make use of content that connects to students’ lives and interests.
    p. They allow students to personalize learning by applying what they have learned to their own lives.
    q. Classroom materials typically make use of authentic texts to create interest and to provide valid models of language.

    Approaches to language teaching today seek to capture the rich view of language and language learning assumed by a communicative view of language Jacobs and Farrell (2003) see the shift toward CLT as marking a paradigm shift in our thinking about teachers, learning, and teaching. They identify key components of this shift as follows:

    a. Focusing greater attention on the role of learners rather than the external stimuli learners are receiving from their environment. Thus, the center of attention shifts from the teacher to the student. This shift is generally known as the move from teachercentered instruction to learner-centered instruction.
    b. Focusing greater attention on the learning process rather than the products that learners produce. This shift is known as the move from product-oriented to process-oriented instruction.
    c. Focusing greater attention on the social nature of learning rather than on students as separate, decontextualized individuals
    d. Focusing greater attention on diversity among learners and viewing these difference not as impediments to learning but as resources to be recognized, catered to, and appreciated. This shift is known as the study of individual differences.
    e. In research and theory-building, focusing greater attention on the views of those internal to the classroom rather than solely valuing the views of those who come from outside to study classrooms, investigate and evaluate what goes on there, and engage in theorizing about it. This shift is associated with such innovations as qualitative research, which highlights the subjective and affective, the participants’ insider views, and the uniqueness of each context.
    f. Along with this emphasis on context comes the idea of connecting the school with the world beyond as means of promoting holistic learning.
    g. Helping students to understand the purpose of learning and develop their own purpose
    h. A whole-to-part orientation instead of a part-to-whole approach. This involves such approaches as beginning with meaningful whole text and then helping students understand the various features that enable texts to function, e.g., the choice of words and the text’s organizational structure.
    i. An emphasis on the importance of meaning rather than drills and other forms of rote learning
    j. A view of learning as a lifelong process rather than something done to prepare students for an exam

    Jacobs and Farrell suggest that the CLT paradigm shift outlined above has led to eight major changes in approaches to language teaching. These changes are:

    a. Learner autonomy: Giving learners greater choice over their own learning, both in terms of the content of learning as well as processes they might employ. The use of small groups is one example of this, as well as the use of self-assessment.
    b. The social nature of learning: Learning is not an individual, private activity, but a social one that depends upon interaction with others. The movement known as cooperative learning reflects this viewpoint.
    c. Curricular integration: The connection between different strands of the curriculum is emphasized, so that English is not seen as a stand-alone subject but is linked to other subjects in the curriculum. Text-based learning (see below) reflects this approach, and seeks to develop fluency in text types that can be used across the curriculum. Project work in language teaching also requires students to explore issues outside of the language classroom.
    d. Focus on meaning: Meaning is viewed as the driving force of learning. Content-based teaching reflects this view and seeks to make the exploration of meaning through content the core of language learning activities.
    e. Diversity: Learners learn in different ways and have different strengths. Teaching needs to take these differences into account rather than try to force students into a single mold. In language teaching, this has led to an emphasis on developing students’ use and awareness of learning strategies.
    f. Thinking skills: Language should serve as a means of developing higher-order thinking skills, also known as critical and creative thinking. In language teaching, this means that students do not learn language for its own sake but in order to develop and apply their thinking skills in situations that go beyond the language classroom.
    g. Alternative assessment: New forms of assessment are needed to replace traditional multiple-choice and other items that test lower-order skills. Multiple forms of assessment.
    h. Teachers as co-learners: The teacher is viewed as a facilitator who is constantly trying out different alternatives, i.e., learning through doing. In language teaching, this has led to an interest in action research and other forms of classroom investigation.


  6. Sir, please visit my blog for assignment 2 about historical background of language teaching in http://khasanahisgood.blogspot.com/
    Thank you.


  7. Assalamu’alaikum.. Good morning, Sir.. please visit my blog.. thank you..


  8. http://teachtoachieve.blogspot.com/2012/04/applied-linguistics-part-2.html

    here is my assignment sir.

    yosie syahfitra abirama
    applied linguistics, 103-104


  9. Posted by Nur Hasanah on April 10, 2012 at 5:38 pm

    assignment 3 on nurhasanahku.blogspot.com


  10. Assignment 3: Communicative Competence by Rahina Larasati (2201409044) http://rahinala.wordpress.com/2012/04/11/assignment-3-communicative-competence/


  11. niammushoffa.wordpress.com (Niam Nur M (2201409041)- class 405-406)


  12. Sir, I’ve posted my assignment about communicative competence in my blog. Would you please visit my blog to http://khasanahisgood.blogspot.com/?
    Thank you, Sir.


  13. this is my third assignment Sir
    Niam Nur M (2201409041) 405-406


  14. Assignment 3 TOPAL : Pedagogically Motivated Construct Components of Communicative Competence


  15. I’m Rezha Miftahur Razaq from rombel Thursday @11 a.m

    The link below will guide you directly to my assignments, if it is possible i would like to see some feedback from you.. Thank you


    thank you..


  16. I’m Rezha Miftahur Razaq from rombel Thursday @11 a.m
    The link below will guide you directly to my assignments, if it is possible i would like to see some feedback from you.. Thank you


    thank you


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