Presentation 1 Definition of Applied Linguistics

Meeting 1 General Introduction Applied Linguistics

25 responses to this post.

  1. I’m Rezha Miftahur Razaq from rombel Thursday @11 a.m

    The link below will guide you directly to my assignments, if it is possible i would like to see some feedback from you.. Thank you

    http://rezhamiftahurrazaq.wordpress.com/2012/03/15/applied-linguistics-definitions-and-scope-assignment-1/

    Reply

  2. Posted by RAHMATIKA DEWI on March 16, 2012 at 7:35 am

    RAHMATIKA DEWI
    (Topics in Applied Linguistics 403-404)
    2201409021

    1. The definitions of Applied Linguistics
    a. According to Corder (1973: 10-11):
    The application of linguistic knowledge to some object-or applied linguistics, as its name implies-is an activity. It is not a theoretical study. It makes use of the findings of theoretical study. The applied linguist is a consumer or user, not a producer of theories.
    Source:
    Seidlhofer, Barbara. 2003. Controversies in Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    b. According to Kaplan (1980: 5)
    Applied Linguistic is the point at which all the branches of linguistics come together. Further, AL is the point at which all the branches of linguistic intersect with other disciplines.
    Source:
    Farhady, Hussein. 1998. On the Scope of Applied Linguistics. Retrieved fromwww.google.co.id/search?hl=id&output=search&sclient=psyab&q=On+the+Scope+of+Applied+Linguistics*&btnG= on 14 March 2012.

    c. Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice dealing with practical problems of language and communication that can be identified, analyzed or solved by applying available theories, methods or result of Linguistics or by developing new theoretical and methodological frameworks in linguistics to work on these problems. (AILA, International Association of Applied Linguistics)
    Source:
    Perrin, Daniel and Griffler, Brutt. 2012. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com on 14 March 2012.

    I conclude that AL is a practical study not a theoretical study that is used for solving the language problems
    2. The similarities and differences of the definitions above.
    The similarity:
    The similarity of the three definitions above is that the Applied Linguistics is the application of linguistic knowledge. The application is done by intersecting all of the branches of linguistic with other disciplines and practicing deal with practical problems of language and communication.
    The differences:
    Angle Corder Kaplan AILA
    Focus Activity of applying linguistic knowledge Activity of intersecting between the branches of linguistics and other disciplines Developing new theoretical and methodological frameworks in linguistics
    Based on Linguistic knowledge Branches of linguistics intersect other disciplines Theories, methods or result of Linguistics
    Tendency Predicate (activity in applied linguistics) Object (branches of linguistics) Subject (interdisciplinary field)

    3. The scope of applied linguistics

    An Illustration of the Scope of Applied Linguistics
    Taken from Kaplan (1980)

    Source:
    Farhady, Hussein. 1998. On the Scope of Applied Linguistics. Retrieved fromwww.google.co.id/search?hl=id&output=search&sclient=psyab&q=On+the+Scope+of+Applied+Linguistics*&btnG= on 14 March 2012.

    The Description of Illustration above
    1. Language and Teaching
    Approaches and Methods
    Grammar Translation Method (GTM)
    Classes are conducted in the mother tongue. This method depends on memorization of lists of the new vocabulary in isolation (i.e no context provided). Great attention is paid to grammatical rules.
    The Series Method: Ls are exposed to a series of connected sentences (in FL) that are easy to understand.
    The Direct Method: It depends on the oral interaction using the FL inside the classroom. It is based on the belief that language should be learned the way we learned our mother tongue.
    The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM): It is based on the idea of over-learning and repetition. New Material is presented in a form of dialogues, broken into pieces.
    Cognitive Code Learning Method (CCL): It is a more student-oriented method as it focuses on his/her mentality and the complicated processes that take place as learning progresses.
    The Designer Methods:
    1. Community Language Learning (CCL): It focuses on establishing interpersonal relationships between Ls in order to make the classroom a family-like environment.
    2. Suggestopedia: It is based on the idea that the human mind can learn anything if a suitable atmosphere (e.g: music, visuals, imagination, meditation, relaxation..) is provided.
    3. The Silent Way: It focuses on how humans learn their first language unintentionally. Simple and comprehensible content is provided, getting harder as Ls go on the learning process.
    Community Language Teaching (CLT): It focuses on helping Ls communicate in FL by improving their communicative competence. It also pays attention to fluency, not always accuracy.
    2. Language and Society
    This branch is also called sociolinguistics. It studies the relationship between the society and language. It answers questions like how society affects the language, what are the varieties of a language, what the diglossic countries are, what is the relationship between language and gender, what are some examples of terms of taboo and euphemism and why they should be used, what are the social factors of language shift, why people resort to code switching, how languages die and how they are revived.
    3. Language and Education/Learning
    • 1st language education
    In this section, linguists try to answer the question: how infants learn/ acquire their mother tongue? Parents do not teach their children to speak. They correct their falsehoods when they misbehave rather than correcting their language mistakes. First-language acquisition is innate, meaning that we are born with a set of language rules which Chomsky refers to as the Universal Grammar. These rules, Chomsky, who belongs to the Mentalists School, argues that these rules enable children to make new utterances of their own, i.e. they produce new language not only copy or repeat what they hear. Chomsky calls this idea Language Acquisition Device.
    • Additional language education
    – 2nd language education
    Second-language education is a young field that started systematically in 1950s and 1960s. It is the study of how nonprimary language learning takes place. The SL can be used by the majority of the community, but it is not the mother tongue. For example, 232 million Indians use English along with Hindi.
    Unlike the innate principles of first-education, the second-language education is based on cognitive mechanism. The 1st language is acquired, whereas the 2nd language is learned.

    – Foreign language education
    FL differs from the SL in that FL is not a language of communication in the learner’s country. For example, Egyptians speak English as an FL not an SL.
    • Clinical linguistics
    Crystal defines clinical linguistics as “the application of the linguistic sciences to the study of language disability in all its forms” (Crystal, 2001:673).
    • Language testing
    “Language Testing is the practice and study of evaluating the proficiency of an individual in using a particular language effectively.” (Priscilla Allen, University of Washington) The purpose of a language test is to determine a person’s knowledge and/or ability in the language and to discriminate that person’s ability from that of others. (Alan Davies, University of Edinburgh) This branch is also called ‘language assessment’. This assessment may test listening reading, speaking and writing. The test pays attention to both knowledge, which is the theoretical understanding of a language and proficiency, which is the practical use of a language.
    4. Language, Work and Law
    • Workplace communication
    It answers the questions what are the different techniques of communication in the workplace, what should be said in what situations at what time…etc.
    • Language planning
    Language planning is bases on some principles. First of all, it is a multidimensional activity, that is to say, it should include all the communities and faculties that participate in the language planning process. Second, the idea that a nation has one language only is a myth. Third, the process of language planning should not be the responsibility of the education sector alone.
    Fourth, in order that this process is to be successful, there should be continuous revision, evaluation and implementation.
    • Forensic linguistics
    It is defined as the application of the theory of linguistics to the law including the language of legislation and the evaluation of written evidence. Some examples of this application may be the analysis of spoken statements (confessions), analysis of court room language (lawyers, judges, witnesses..) voice identification, interpretation of the language of the law and legal writings and so on.
    5. Language, Information and Effect
    • Literary stylistics
    It studies the different styles of authors. For example, one can feel the sarcastic style of the Egyptian writer Belal Fadl by only reading the title or one or two lines. We also have our own styles while speaking. The Egyptians use idiomatic expressions all the time while they speak. Nearly half of our speech is not literal.
    • (CDA) Critical Discourse Analysis
    The terms Critical Linguistics (CL) and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) can be used interchangeably. CDA pays great attention to the context of the text (Wodak, 2000c; Benke, 2000). CDA deals with ‘language as social practice’ (Fairclough and Wodak, 1997). It also considers the institutional, political, gender and media discourses. As Krings argues, CDA is the practical linking of ‘social and political engagement’ with ‘a sociologically informed construction of society’ (Krings et al., 1973: 808), while recognizing, in Fairclough’s words ‘that, in human matters, interconnections and chains of cause and effect may be distorted out of vision. Hence ”critique” is essentially making visible the interconnectedness of things’ (Fairclough, 1985: 747; see also Connerton, 1976: 11±39 and see below).
    • Translation and interpretation
    Translation sometimes is not as easy as it is believed. Specialized translators and interpreters have more complicated task. For instance, if the text is about Genetic Engineering, a translator should read about the topic in both languages [the source language (SL) and the target language (TL)]. Some types of texts of translation are:
    • financial translation and interpretation
    • legal translation and interpretation
    • literary translation
    • medical translation and interpretation
    • scientific translation and interpretation
    • technical translation and interpretation
    Types of translation may be machine translation, machine-assisted translation, screen translationn, sight translation and localization. Types of interpretations are consecutive interpretation (consec) and simultaneous interpretation (simul).
    • Information design
    It studies how the message should be delivered, how the layout should be like, what font type, color and size should be used, in attempt to convey the information clearly and optimally useful.
    • Lexicography
    This branch is divided into two sections: practical and theoretical. The practical section of lexicography involves compiling or editing dictionaries, whereas the theoretical section involves the analysis of the vocabulary itself paying attention to semantics and pragmatics and the relationship between the different forms.

    Source:
    Ali, M. M. F. R. (n.d.) Applied Linguistics. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/58883443/Applied-Linguistics-1-the-Scope-of-Applied-Linguistics on 14 March 2012.

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  3. sir, this is my answer of the first assignment,,please visit my blog sir http://utamimeta.wordpress.com/2012/03/16/topics-in-applied-linguistics-1st-assignment/ thank you..

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  4. Sir, this is my work on definitions and scope of Applied Linguistics. http://chololatemuffin.blogspot.com/2012/03/definitions-and-scope-of-applied.html
    Could you please check it out? Thank you.

    Reply

  5. Assignment 1 (Rahina Larasati/ 2201409044/ 405-406): http://rahinala.wordpress.com/2012/03/16/assignment-1/

    Reply

  6. Sir, this is my first assignment of Topics in Applied Linguistics
    Rombel : 403-404

    http://sucikaes.wordpress.com/2012/03/17/assignment-1_topics-in-applied-linguistics/

    thank you.

    Reply

  7. this is my 1st assignment from Topics in Applied Linguistic’s class Sir.
    Name: Laila Zumala A
    SRN: 2201409065
    http://lazzagna.blogspot.com/2012/03/applied-linguistics.html

    Reply

  8. Sir, please visit my blog on luvfylicious.wordpress.com
    Thank you,

    Reply

  9. Assalamualaikum, Sir..
    my name is Dian Paramita Ayuningtyas, one of your students in Topics in Applied Linguistic. and this is the link to my blog where i posted my first assignment. thank you. http://diandelion.blogspot.com/2012/03/definition-and-scope-of-applied.html

    Reply

  10. This is my Topic and Applied Linguistics blog sir.

    Adam Ismail (2201409015)
    Topic and Applied Linguistics, Thursday 9 am

    Reply

  11. Name : Abibah
    NIM : 2201409052
    Rombel : 03 (Thursday, 11 a.m.)
    Topics in Applied Linguistics’ Assignment
    1. Obtain the definition of applied linguistics from three different experts!
    2. Find the similarities and differences of the three definitions!
    3. Describe the scope of applied linguistics!

    Answers :
    1. Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice dealing with practical problems of language and communication that can be identified, analyzed or solved by applying available theories, methods or results of Linguistics or by developing new theoretical and methodological frameworks in linguistics to work on these problems. (AILA International Association of Applied Linguistics in Defining Applied Linguistics)

    Applied linguistics is the use of language-related research in a wide variety of fields, including language acquisition, language teaching, literacy, literary studies, gender studies, speech therapy, discourse analysis, censorship, workplace communication, media studies, translation studies, lexicography, and forensic linguistics. (Richard Nordquist from About.com)

    Applied linguistics is an area of work that deals with language use in professional settings, translation, speech pathology, literacy, and language education; and it is not merely the application of linguistic knowledge to such settings but is a semiautonomous and interdisciplinary . . . domain of work that draws on but is not dependent on areas such as sociology, education, anthropology, cultural studies, and psychology.
    (Alastair Pennycook, Critical Applied Linguistics: A Critical Introduction. Routledge, 2001)

    2. The similarities of the three definitions are the three of them state that an applied linguistics is interdisciplinary field that is about language and it is related to research.
    The differences of the three definitions :

    T
    H
    E

    D
    I
    F
    F
    E
    R
    E
    N
    C
    E
    S
    Definition from AILA International Association of Applied Linguistics Definition from Richard Nordquist Definition from Alastair Pennycook, Critical Applied Linguistics

    Concerned with practical problems of language and communication and how to identify, analyze, and develop new theoretical and methodological frameworks in these problem.
    Concerned with use of language, including language acquisition, language teaching, literacy, literary studies, gender studies, speech therapy, discourse analysis, censorship, workplace communication, media studies, translation studies, lexicography, and forensic linguistics.
    Concerned with language use in professional settings, translation, speech pathology, literacy, and language education.

    3. The scope of Applied Linguistics can not be limited to language teaching because linguistics was one of the fields of which the findings were applicable to language teaching. There were some other areas of science that contributed to language teaching as well. Furthermore, there were other areas of science, which had little or no connections to language teaching, to which linguistics contributed.

    An Illustration of the Scope of Applied Linguistics
    taken from Kaplan (1980)

    Reply

  12. Sir, visit my web blog on http://maulinaadzkiyah.blogspot.com/
    I have posted my assignment there.
    Thank you.

    Maulina Adzkiyah (2201409033)
    Study Group 405-406

    Reply

  13. Sir, visit my web blog on http://khasanahisgood.blogspot.com/, please.
    I have posted my assignment there. Thank you.

    Reply

  14. sir, this is my blog link http://regadeta.blogspot.com/
    i will use this blog for TAL assignments, thank you sir.

    Reply

  15. My name is Rini Dwijayanti. I’m one of your students in Topic in Applied Linguistics rombel 403-404.
    It is an honour for me if you would like to visit my blog. Thank you, sir…..

    Reply

  16. Good evening, Sir,..
    I’m A’in Ratna Mulyani, your student in Topics in Applied Linguistics class,,
    it’s an honor for me if you would like to visit my webblog…
    Thank you Sir…

    Reply

  17. ANNISA PUSPITA SARI
    2201409111
    THRU, 405-406

    The definition of applied linguistics

    Applied Linguistics itself may be seen as an autonomous, problem-solving disciple, concerned broadly with language (mainly, but not exclusively second language) education and language problems in society’ (Steve McDonough, 2002)

    applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice dealing with practical problems of language and communication that can be identified, analysed or solved by applying available theories, methods or results of Linguisticsor by developing new theoretical and methodological frameworks in linguistics to work on these problems’ (AILA International Association of Applied Linguistics)

    Applied Linguistics (AL) provides the theoretical and descriptive foundations for the investigation and solution of language-related problems, especially those of language education (first-language, second-language and foreign-language teaching and learning), but also problems of translation and interpretation, lexicography, forensic linguistics and (perhaps) clinical linguistics.’ (Dick Hudson’s online survey of BAAL British Association of Applied Linguistics members)

    The differences of the definition
    no Key words McDonough BAAL AILA
    1 problem-solving disciple y y y
    2 concerned broadly with language y y y
    3 language problems in society y
    4 applying available theories, methods y y
    5 problems of translation and interpretation, lexicography, forensic linguistics and (perhaps) clinical linguistics y

    The scope of applied linguistics according to http://www.slideshare.net/petitlutin/applied-linguistics
    1. Language teaching and learning
    2. Language testing
    3. Psycho- and neuro linguistics
    4. Sociolinguistics
    5. Discourse analysis
    6. Computational anlysis
    7. translationstudies

    Reply

  18. ASSIGNMENT 2 TOPIC APPLIED LINGUISTIC , HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CLT

    NINDITA IRMA HABSARI

    2201409045

    TOPAL : 405 – 406

    http://taasweet.wordpress.com/2012/04/05/assignment-2-topic-applied-linguistic-historical-background-of-clt/

    Reply

  19. Assignment 1 Topic Applied Linguistics
    Topic Applied Linguistics

    Nindita Irma Habsari

    2201409045

    405-406

    http://taasweet.wordpress.com/2012/03/21/assignment-1-topic-applied-linguistics/

    Reply

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